It's been more than 30 years since the airline industry was deregulated in 1978. Since then it's lost nearly $60 billion on U.S. operations, though most of the losses have come since 9/11. The airlines were already in trouble before the attacks happened. The plunge in demand and resulting liquidity crisis led to billions in government cash and loan guarantees-- the first true bailout of the 21st century, and certainly a sign of things to come in the next decade.
In a paper published last month, (Abstract here; full version here) Berkeley economist and overall airline guru Severin Borenstein examines some of the most common explanations for the airline industry's dismal performance, and why experts and deregulation advocates failed so badly to predict what would happen after deregulation 30 years ago.