Were Colonial Americans More Literate than Americans Today?

Photo: cdrummbks

In 1776, one book, written in complex language, sold over 120,000 copies in Colonial America. That number does seem large on its own. However, to give it even more meaning, I like to convert it to an equivalent number today.

This conversion is a task for proportional reasoning—one of my favorite tools for finding meaning in the numbers that surround us. First convert 120,000 into a fraction of the U.S. population in 1776: compared to the population at the time of 2.5 million, 120,000 is roughly 1 in 20, or 5%. Today’s U.S. population is about 300 million—of which 5% is 15 million.

Fifteen million copies today! More surprisingly, Common Sense by Thomas Paine sold this equivalent in just three months. In its first year, it sold 500,000 copies, or 20% of the colonial population.

Today’s equivalent is 60 million copies. On Wikipedia’s list of bestselling books, all books that have sold that many or more copies have done so over a much longer time. The shortest time is 8 years, for The Da Vinci Code; several others, such as Heidi, were published in the 19th century.

Another surprise arrives upon opening Common Sense: the sophistication of the writing and reasoning. Here are a few sentences:

As a long and violent abuse of power, is generally the Means of calling the right of it in question (and in Matters too which might never have been thought of, had not the Sufferers been aggravated into the inquiry) and as the King of England hath undertaken in his Own Right, to support the Parliament in what he calls Theirs, and as the good people of this country are grievously oppressed by the combination, they have an undoubted privilege to inquire into the pretensions of both, and equally to reject the usurpations of either.

The laying of a Country desolate with Fire and Sword, declaring War against the natural rights of all Mankind, and extirpating the Defenders thereof from the Face of the Earth, is the Concern of every Man to whom Nature hath given the Power of feeling; of which Class, regardless of Party Censure, is The Author.

Society in every state is a blessing, but government even in its best state is but a necessary evil; in its worst state an intolerable one; for when we suffer, or are exposed to the same miseries By a Government, which we might expect in a country Without Government, our calamity is heightened by reflecting that we furnish the means by which we suffer.

Each sentence is longer than a whole soundbite of today.

Furthermore, in 1776 literacy was not universal. Therefore, many colonial Americans had the book read to them. The sales figure of 500,000 copies thus underestimates the number of people who attended to its message.

And what a message! Can you imagine a book with such a complex style today selling 60 million copies in one year? To ask the question is to answer it. To make the comparison concrete, here are data from the National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL), which measures the English literacy of adults across the United States. Prose literacy, defined in the study as the ability to “search, comprehend, and use information from continuous texts,” is categorized into four levels: below basic, basic, intermediate, and proficient. Proficient, the highest level, is defined as “reading lengthy, complex, abstract prose texts as well as synthesizing information and making complex inferences.” As an example of this level of performance, they cite comparing the viewpoints in two texts. This level seems to be roughly the level required to read Common Sense.

In the extensive NAAL survey, only 13% of adults attained this level. Thus, the proportion of Americans today who are able to understand Common Sense (13%) is smaller than the proportion that bought Common Sense in 1776 (20%). Are we a nation in decline?

(I am indebted to John Taylor Gatto’s article “The seven-lesson schoolteacher” for the idea of measuring colonial literacy using Common Sense.)

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  1. Maxine Parshall says:

    It isn’t really honest to compare modern day reading comprehension with colonial sales numbers. We don’t know how many colonists really comprehended the details of Paine’s arguments. And we don’t know how many colonists who were being read to asked the reader to explain it or to summarize it.

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  2. gradi3nt says:

    Isn’t it also true that the number of words published and distributed per capita is many orders of magnitude larger today than it was in the colonial era? With more choices of course distribution totals will be lower.

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  3. Jem says:

    I arrived here in a search for historical world literacy. I’ve read a few stats over the years but really want to see something in concrete. I’m starting to get a sense that perhaps I won’t find any concrete literacy rates that span internationally for a millennium because no one was actually keeping track.

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  4. Reader1 says:

    You miss one major point. In 1776, there were probably 6 books available to the broad public, with one being the Bible, which most people already owned. Therefore, if you were looking for something to read, you didn’t have much to choose from. However, in the modern era, we have tens of thousands of books to choose from. A more appropriate comparison would be total book sales in each era.

    According to this site: http://www.fonerbooks.com/booksale.htm, book sales peaked at about $17Billion in 2007 in the US. If we are to assume that the average book sells for about $12 (averaging out more expensive hard cover and cheaper paperback), then that means we bought over 1.4Billion books in 2007, or almost 5 books per every man woman and child in the country. That would equal 500% today vs 20% in 1776.

    Harry Potter alone sold 11million copies IN ONE DAY:

    Plenty of books have sold millions and millions of copies:

    More importantly, just because something was sold, it doesn’t mean that it was “READ” or “UNDERSTOOD”. “Common Sense” was a political tool used by secessionist to promote the war. I was often bought in high volumes and passed out to people for free, many of whom probably didn’t or could not read it. Your false correlation and assumptions do not prove literacy.

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  5. Richard Hesse says:

    It is hardly surprising that the modern readers have difficulty reading and comprehending common sense given the radical difference in idiom and vocabulary. In short, too much of the justification for the conclusion is a case of apples compared to oranges.

    Newspapers, pamphlets and books in the colonial era were a kind of media that has been transformed in modern society. Accounts of life in colonial times do not reveal a general degree of sophistication. One suspects that “literacy” of the period was tightly linked to Bible reading. There is little reason to conclude that the general public read and comprehended COMMON SENSE; hardly a surprise since the general public was not the audience for which it was written.

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