How an Absent Father Affects Boys and Girls Differently


According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the share of children living in mother-only households has risen from 8 percent in 1960 to 23 percent in 2010. Freakonomics has a long-standing interest in the role parents play in the lives of their children, and while we usually find no merit in helicopter parenting, a basic level of involvement is obviously important. Past research has shown that a father’s involvement with his children is linked to all kinds of beneficial outcomes, from higher academic achievement, improved social and emotional well-being, to lower incidences of delinquency, risk taking, and other problem behaviors.

A new working paper from authors Deborah A. Cobb-Clark and Erdal Tekin examines the relationship between juvenile delinquency and the role of a father in the household, particularly in terms of the different effects an absent father has on boys and girls. They discovered, among other things, that sons benefit far more from a father (or father-figure) than daughters do. From the abstract:

…we find that adolescent boys engage in more delinquent behavior if there is no father figure in their lives. However, adolescent girls’ behavior is largely independent of the presence (or absence) of their fathers.

Though a non-residential father isn’t ideal, a father-like replacement does have positive effects on boys. A stepfather tends to reduce delinquent behavior, and having a father figure who puts in a significant quantity of time around a child is important.

Adolescent boys who have a father figure in their lives are significantly less likely to engage in subsequent delinquent behavior than are their peers with no father in their lives.  For example, the incidence of any form of delinquent behavior is 7.6 percentage points lower among boys living with their biological fathers and is 8.5 percentage points lower among boys who live with stepfathers and have no relationship with their biological fathers.

While daughters generally require a level of quality interaction with a father figure, sons benefit from sheer quantity of time, and respond simply to having a father or father figure around the house. Most interestingly, however, is the finding that daughters appear to be adversely affected by contact with their non-residential biological father.

It is also important to note that growing up with only a non-residential, biological  father who spent time talking with his adolescent daughter appears to be associated with slight increases in her delinquent behavior as measured by any type of crime, violent crime, and selling drugs once she reaches adulthood. This surprising result may be due to the possibility that these verbal interactions between the non-residential father and the adolescent  is an indication of a problematic relationship between the two, which might have manifested itself as delinquent behavior later in life.

For both young men and women, delinquent behavior decreased if their mothers simply spent time “doing things” with them during their adolescence. Mothers also do significantly more “talking” with their daughters than with their sons, a potential contributor for why sons are more affected by the absence of a father than daughters are. However, the authors note that:

Mothers also do not appear to compensate for the complete absence of a father figure by increasing their involvement with their children. In fact, it is those children without a father figure in their lives who engage in fewer activities and talk about fewer issues with their mothers.


"among boys living with their biological fathers "

Does this study control for boys living with their non-biologic, but adoptive fathers? As the father of an adopted son, I'm curious.


Hi David, I am currently working on my M.A. thesis on a related topic. There is a bit of a gap in the research in bio vs adopted. From the studies I have read, the data above don't apply to adopted or step-parents that provide a supportive and loving home. There are still abandonment and grieving concerns that adopted children, or any children separated from bio parents, must work through. I highly highly recommend checking our Primal Wound by Nancy Verrier. This provides a great deal of info about what adopted children and adoptive parents must work through. Netflix also has a great documentary called Absent.

Eric M. Jones.

Scientific American I recall, disclosed a study that showed that a man was 400X more likely to kill his step-kids than his biological kids!

Having step-kids, I understand that. The refrain, "You're NOT my Father..." rings in my ears.

Skip Montanaro

Does the study control for race, income, etc?


"This surprising result may be due to the possibility that these verbal interactions between the non-residential father and the adolescent is an indication of a problematic relationship between the two, which might have manifested itself as delinquent behavior later in life"

This article makes little sense, and does not show how the study was done, or how the participants were selected. It also assumes any contact a father has with his daughter must be negative. Really?


Hmmm...when there is strong biological evidence, not just anecdotal suggestion, that the absence of fathers causes girls to begin menstruating at an earlier age, this study seems to miss some very important factors.

Additionally, in the "softer" but no less real realm, behavorial psychologists with extensive clinical experience point out that the presence of fathers in a girl's life show up dramatic differences in terms of not just self-esteem, but academic performance, choice of mates, etc.

The latter questions may be about dogma and anecdote. The former is demonstrated scientifically. Thus, on balance, I am left thinking that this study missed some really important variables....


I'm wondering if the evolution programmed us to become "delinquent" if we are raised without fathers.
If the father's procreation strategy (e.g. rape, or just not sticking around) was successful, wouldn't it be logical for the next generation to continue with the same approach? After all, there might be an environment when this approach would work better.
And that may manifest itself as an asocial behavior, aggression, etc.

Obviously, this doesn't apply to girls.

Adam Acosta

This article is linked to in the blog post and it describes in a fair amount of detail what is controlled for and how in addition to the basic methodology of analysis and selection. Granted, it helps to know some calculus and statistics to understand what the researchers are saying, but still, you can answer these questions by reading the paper.


Re: the last sentence of paragraph (1). Risk-taking is a problem behavior? What about rock-and-roll, or integration and bus boycotts, going to the moon, or saving the world from fascisim by winning WWII. All these achievements were undertaken by a group of risk-takers (and I don't mean only men.) A society which views risk-taking as a problem behavior will be doomed to stagnation. L. and D., I would love to see some pieces on the freakonomics of risk-taking. Cheers.

Pablo A.

I wonder if there are studies that show the effects of absent mothers. If absent fathers are more detrimental than absent mothers then courts should favor father for residential parents in divorce cases.

Ervan Darnell

Does this disentangle cause and effect? It seems plausible that better behaved fathers, i.e. more likely to help their children, have genes that produce better behaved boys, i.e. less likely to be delinquent. Or maybe boys who are less likely to be delinquent, for independent reasons, are more likely to give fathers a reason to stay in a shaky marriage?

Doug Nelson

What about lesbian mothers? 2 parents, yet still no father. Will Freakonomics 8 have a chapter about the upswing in juvenile deliquency 16 years after gay marraige becomes commonplace?


No need to wait, they've already been done in various countries:


Has anyone ever looked at this with regard to military families? With the sheer number of troops deployed over the last ten years, some repeatedly, that's an awful lot of boys growing up with non-residential, situationally not-very-involved dads.


So, is the absence of a father related to young woman putting themselves "out there" sexually because they crave male attention? i feel like an absent father would affect a young woman just as much, if not more than a young boy? "However, adolescent girls’ behavior is largely independent of the presence (or absence) of their fathers." not sure i agree with this

Some girl

I agree that an absent Farther effects young girls just as much as boys. I think girls don't show it as much because naturally we are introvert about our problems.

I used to crave male attention myself I think, which caused a lot of problems I was in a abusive relationship at 14 and after that I believe I was a victim of grooming. My best friends dad, who Id call my adopted dad as a joke, would say and do things that made me feel uncomfortable, not often or bad enough for me to notice at the time. The same friends brother in law who was in his 40's would pretend to 'tickle' me but grab my bum and inner thigh even after i asked him to stop because i didnt like it, he once brought me a overly padded bra and he would text me and ask to be my first... i didn't like him, i was actually scared of him so i changed my number and made sure i never seen him again.

I craved male attention but then when bad things would happen i never knew what to do to stop it. i know now that i craved attention because my dad never cared for me... i ended up looking for that in all the wrong places. That went on for a few years and they were the worst years of my life and most of its a blur.

Yes, i craved male attention, but i was getting the wrong attention and when id realise that it would happen again and again. Now im older i can admit that i crave male attention, and i do because my dad was never around. He was never there to teach me the right and wrong attention, i had to learn that myself. I know now when im receiving the wrong attention and when i am i cut all ties, i dont associate with people like that anymore. But some girls arent so lucky and are stuck in that cycle of being used and abused time after time.


rafael perez

This is an article based on an opinion; it does not show any quantitative research with defining elements ofproving ones conclusion. A hypothesis and null-hypothesis would definitely show some sort of scientific and statistical research. No effort was made to note some current research articles that would show some sort of evidence of as to a hypothesis. The conclusion is bias and written with the intent to voice a hard felt opinion.

Kathleen E

This should not be. Fathers abandonin there child only brings more stress on the mother that is raiseing her child on her own. There is no father to take control. with out-of-wedlock childeren it brings more stress on the child because there mother has to find means in making the mony so she is more then likely to not be home. Thus leaving the child with a family member or friend so that child never realy has anyone they can trust in.

mark cubero

For me I'm also a person living without father but my life was so okay with my mom. its just I bare in mind that I want to become more descent person than my father is so that when we see each other I can say that I'm better without you.


19 years of no father. First time I saw him was christmas when I was 12, last time I saw him was my eith grade graduation - 6 months later. I have a heart of gold, and I hold no anger towards him


If a father comes back later in a girls life, how would that change her delinquency?

Lsa Barrow

The key word is an "active" father figure..not just a man who happens to be around but is not taking an active role in his kids lives....."Active" not passive.


I've been living without a father since 12, I'm 18 now. Reading this post made me cry, my mom is remarried to a uncaring jerk who shows affection to my brothers and sisters, none to me. My life is pretty messed up, they seem to have ended up fine..


I can kind of relate to this, however I didn't have a step dad I just had a jack ass of a dad. I felt like a failure and my life was soo messed up along with my head. At 17 I found photography, my life then spiralled out of my control... im now 19 and im making a change, no ones going to do that for you, you need to change whatever it is you're not happy about.

If you feel like a failure do something about it... find out what you're good at, what your talent is, something you're passionate about and do it. make something of it! I am in the process now of becoming a photographer, admittedly im not where i want to be yet but im getting there, taking baby steps.

Lifes not just something you take, its given.

Asim Munir Malik

My 2 sisters and myself grew up without our biological fathers. It was hard financially, with only a mother. I am a boy and had good chances in life like free education and my mother god social security. This was a lifesaver. I got a degree in computer science and had to pay very little for it. That led me onto a job and marraige. I have been married 15 and a 1/2 years now and have 2 teenagers. My 2 sisters are married with 2 kids each. They have bothe emigrated to usa and saudi arabia. We are doing better now. I have found out who are biological fathers were and what their names were. I had a tatoo on my arm with their names on it. We are the product of 2 divorces since infants and after infance we never saw oour biological fathers again. One of them is already dead. We live on. It was the social security and free education given by the uk that helped my mother and us cope. Good luck to you all.