The Economics of Teeth, and Other Beauty Premiums

I’ve been thinking a lot about teeth lately.

First I read this post by Ian Ayres on the value of getting a tooth cleaning.

Then I was out in Salt Lake City to give a lecture at the University of Utah, and the student who drove me around was a very nice guy whose father is a dentist, and we fell to discussing whether dentists’ offspring have better teeth than average (yes, he said), and whether that difference is genetic or behavioral (behavioral, he said).

Then I came across an interesting working paper by Sherry Glied and Matthew Neidell called “The Economic Value of Teeth” (abstract here or download here).

The paper asks whether good teeth improve a person’s labor-market outcome, which is a basic but important question, especially since teeth (unlike height or looks in general) are something that can be fixed.

Glied and Neidell used a clever methodology to measure the impact of teeth on earnings: whether and/or when a certain city’s population had access to fluoridated water. As they explain in the abstract: “The politics surrounding the adoption of water fluoridation by local water districts suggest exposure to fluoride during childhood is exogenous to other factors affecting earnings.”

They found that women who grew up drinking fluoridated water earn about 4 percent more than women who didn’t, although they found no effect for men. “Furthermore,” they write, “the effect is almost exclusively concentrated amongst women from families of low socioeconomic status.”

Knowing what we know about various “beauty premiums,” this strikes me as a not-very-surprising but still interesting result. The one surprise may be that there is no good-teeth effect for men, since the research of Dan Hamermesh (who’s been doing great guest blogging here lately) showed that looks actually matter more for men than for women. To quote a recent Economist article on the subject:

Just over a decade ago Dr. Hamermesh presided over a series of surveys in the United States and Canada which showed that when all other things are taken into account, ugly people earn less than average incomes, while beautiful people earn more than the average. The ugliness “penalty” for men was -9 percent while the beauty premium was +5 percent. For women, perhaps surprisingly considering popular prejudices about the sexes, the effect was less: the ugliness penalty was -6 percent while the beauty premium was +4 percent.

Since then, he has gone on to measure these effects in other places. In China, ugliness is penalized more in women, but beauty is more rewarded. The figures for men in Shanghai are -25 percent and +3 percent; for women they are -31 percent and +10 percent. In Britain, ugly men do worse than ugly women (-18 percent as against -11 percent) but the beauty premium is the same for both (and only +1 percent).

Any way you look at it, the teeth paper is yet another reminder that, as much as we might like to think that wages are perfectly correlated with talent and effort, more trivial factors always come into play.

There is, for instance, the famous argument by three Penn researchers that tall people earn more money than shorter people, although their explanation included the fact that you had to be tall as an adolescent, not the beneficiary of a later growth spurt. Why? Because, their argument went, lifetime self-esteem is heavily formed in adolescence, and you gathered up extra self-esteem if you were a tall adolescent.

Interestingly, that explanation — which always struck me as fascinating, though a bit too fantastic — has recently been challenged in a paper by Anne Case and Christina Paxson called “Stature and Status: Height, Ability, and Labor Market Outcomes” (forthcoming publication in the Journal of Political Economy). Their explanation is brutally simple:

In developed countries, researchers have emphasized factors such as self esteem, social dominance, and discrimination. In this paper, we offer a simpler explanation: On average, taller people earn more because they are smarter. As early as age 3 — before schooling has had a chance to play a role — and throughout childhood, taller children perform significantly better on cognitive tests. … Furthermore, we show that taller adults select into occupations that have higher cognitive skill requirements and lower physical skill demands.

So what does all this research mean if you are a short, not-so-attractive person with bad teeth?

It means you should get your teeth fixed.

This, by the way, is a big part of the reasoning behind the charity Smile Train, which we wrote about here. Smile Train realizes that something as relatively minor as a cleft palate can put a huge drag on your future, especially in developing countries:

Fixing a child’s cleft lip or palate is a relatively cheap procedure with outsize payoffs: cleft children in many countries are ostracized and have a hard time going to school, getting jobs and marrying, and the surgery reverses those disadvantages. Indeed, when pitching a reluctant government, [Brian] Mullaney refers to cleft children as “nonperforming assets” who can soon be returned to the economic mainstream.

If all this talk of beauty premiums and ugly penalties has you down, there’s at least one piece of good news: having a ridiculous first name, be it Fido or Loser or LemonJello, doesn’t seem to affect career earnings at all.

[Note: I’ll be discussing this subject tomorrow (Tues.) morning on The Takeaway.]


does nobody remember the classic Alan Blinder's funny paper about the economics of brushing teeth?


Flourinated water? Are you out your minds. Obviously you have not heard of 3rd world communities around the world whose only water source has so much Fluorine the whole village has deep brown teeth-erosion free teeth- nonetheless.

El Christador

There was an NYT article a year or two ago, a fairly lengthy one, about a woman who had been working in minimum wage jobs at places like Wal-Mart since the '70s, doing jobs like stocking shelves, and was making less in real wages than she had in the '70s. The article observed that the big obstacle to her advancement to higher paying positions was that she had no teeth, and so anything that involved interaction with customers was ruled out. And all the positions that people would move up to from the sorts of jobs she was doing were jobs interacting with customers. If I recall correctly, she had dentures but they were very poor fitting and unusable.

Bill Millan

Someone should do a study on the effect on children not getting their teeth looked after because their parents don't want to pay the high prices Dentists charge to have their cleaned.

It is illegal in all states that I know of for a Dental Tech to work on his/her own. They HAVE to work for a Dentist. In a free market, getting your teeth cleaned would work the same way as getting your hair cut. There would be walk-in shops all over. Your kids could get their teeth cleaned while you shop at Wal Mart.

The Dentists have a real racket going here. All of their talk about how it wouldn't be "safe" otherwise is nonsense to cover up their enslavement of Dental Techs.


The inconvenient truth is that tooth decay rates and tooth loss are highest in the most fluoridated states . So Gliad et al's article doesn't hold water.

for more info

Remco van Bree

@3: I don't buy that as a man you can get a career just by looking stern and not smiling. Apparently most successful people to become successful because they socialise outside of office hours. Generally networking goes better for people with winning smiles.


Just a thought: the lack of results for men might result from this: beautiful women must smile, men have the option of adopting a serious look.


I, for one, haven't noticed a height difference between the rich and poor, nor have I noticed taller lawyers, doctors, or grad students (having been in grad school myself). If height is so correlated with income, the average person in the ghetto should be a lot shorter than the average brain surgeon. Little construction workers, huge bankers. The richest people in the world don't seem to be giants, nor the poorest ones midgets.

Could someone explain this anomaly? Or do people have different observations?


Although I haven't read the paper, I have reservations that fluoridated water provision is truly exogenous. It probably is, but I think we should take the results knowing full well that they are observational.

Janice Huth Byer

"Growth of the Soil" is a sympathetic portrayal of a poor farm wife, whose cleft palate was corrected midlife with unforeseen consequences for her marriage. It well deserved the Nobel in Literature it earned in 1920 for Norway's Knut Hamsun.


This little blog got me all tear'd up.
When I was a younger man, in tougher times (2003). I was in a bar fight and lost a front tooth. I soon realized that teeth are important. People w/ out teeth are freaks. In the business world, acceptable teeth is a must. When it comes to labor and economics. It is a utility function. My teeth's utility is equal to my counterparts. It will take an institutional adjust of extreme social change to make teeth have an impact in the labor market. Outside, the top quarter of income earners. I


@5: Dental Hygienists have been allowed to practice independently of dentists in Colorado for several years now. A very small percentage of them have opted to assume the risk of opening a small business of their own. An interesting paper titled "The Economic Impact of Unsupervised Dental Hygiene Practice and its Impact on Access to Care in the State of Colorado" only identified 17 dental hygiene practices that were independent of a dental office. If interested, you can read the paper here:

As a side note, average salaries of $60-80k for dental hygienists do not really constitute "enslavement" in my book...

Anatole France

If my comment converts one cigarette smoker, I will consider it a triumph. As a former smoker I know what I'm talking about.

Cigarette smoking causes gingivitis ... gum disease. That, in turn, causes the loss of teeth.

Look at the next dozen smokers you meet. Their teeth are battlegrounds. Their smiles are stained fences with half of the pickets missing.

Their appearance will prejudice employers and they will earn less in the free marketplace.

Today, the state of ones dental care is a surrogate for class and education.

For what you'll pay for your next pack of cigarettes, you could buy a gallon of gasoline and drive 12 miles in your new Escalade.

Toss out your Marlboros! You're too good a person to do this to yourself.

Benny Rietveld

What a revelation... survival of the cutest.

Rats - ugh! But put a bushy tail on 'em - awww, look at the cute squirrel!

People are actually still trying to "prove" the obvious?


What prices like this, paid by private collectors, often mean is that the public will rarely see this work in person again. Most museums cannot hope to come up with this sort of cash for a single painting. Many collectors then store the work in a bank vault or display it in a private home. As noted in the interview, paintings often need to be seen in person to be truly understood or appreciated... while a reproduction in a catalogue or magazine may impress, the full emotional impact of a particular work will be seriously diluted if not lost altogether. When private collectors spend their copious meaningless millions on works of art for whatever personal reasons, the rest of us lose out. And, just a personal opinion here... I don't care what anyone spent on a Jeff Koons work, the guy is not an "artist"... shameless self-promoter, brilliant marketing genius, yes, but artist? sigh. A famous PT Barnum quote comes to mind...



Anthropologists have long speculated that the smile itself, showing your teeth, is a near universal gesture to show how healthy you are as a potential mate. Good teeth generally means a healthy person; this is the reason we look at horses' mouths, even when they are gifts.

Why can't healthy teeth simply be an indicator of overall health? And if you feel good, why are you not going to perform better?

Ron A

In the 1960s, another fellow and I were discussing who would become the Board Char of a large corporation. He said, "I don't know who it will be, but I bet HE will wear a 42 long suitcoat".

Over the years, I have seen that many more times than pure chance would dictate. It appears to me that sex, height and weight all bear on the selection process. It is reasonable to think that 'beauty' would too.


Guilty as charged! My mother has horrible teeth, and I grew up being embarrassed for her about them. I had braces in my teens, and take excellent care of my own teeth. I get many compliments on them. My dear mother has horrible self-confidance issues, owing at least in part, I am certain, to those teeth. I, on the the other hand, sometimes have more confidance than is good for me.


Nice to hear that I'm finally good looking since I grew up in a town with floridated water. However, a friend from another town was looking at my high school year book and declared us all ugly.


Maybe I'll consider fixing my teeth..